Tree pruning is one of the most important processes in garden care. However, it is not oningly done for decoration. Tree pruning may have different purposes and tasks.
Types of tree pruning depend on the purposes:
1 purpose: to form the crown of a tree
This kind of garden art is called topiary. When forming a tree’s crown, you should start work as quickly as possible and do it throughout the life of the tree.
2 purpose: to improve the lighting, breathing and mechanical stress of the branches of the tree, to stimulate growth
Such pruning should take place annually or every few years as the tree’s crown grows and becomes too thick. You should cut “extra” branches, leaving room for the rest of the branches to grow and space for normal breathing and lighting of leaves.
In the case of fruit trees, this type of trimming is very important. Make sure the branches are optimally and evenly loaded by the fruit. When trimming, it is always necessary to maintain the correct crown geometry and leave the required number of buds between the branches . So that if the existing branches break down, there will be something new to grow in the same place.
3 purpose: tree health
Remove dried up, frozen branches that disturbe the uniformity of load on the trunk and root system of the tree.
4 purpose: to rejuvenate trees
Remove old branches. It allow sleeping buds to grow, form a fresh, young shoots. As a result, after a few years, a new young crown is formed, which has both a higher ornamentality and higher strength.
5 purposes: for the right balance between growth and fruit-bearing processes
For fruit trees, pruning can be used to adjust the ratio of growth to fruiting. For this purpose, there is a whole range of techniques that allow, depending on the age, type, condition and wishes of the owner, to change the “behavior” of the tree in the desired direction.
Pruning the garden
Pruning, as an agro-technical method, is based on the ability of plants to recover the lost parts. To be more precise, not to restore, but to grow in place of lost branches, new ones. However, in order to ensure that pruning does not lead to the weakening of a tree, certain rules must be followed and individual characteristics of a particular tree and a species must be taken into account. These are the basic rules to be followed when pruning:
Restoration occurs at the expense of work of the specialized fabrics capable to division, so trimming should be made in the period that precedes or coincides with time of activity of these fabrics. The main time in which pruning is done is from the end of winter until the buds wake up.
If you want to remove dried out branches or insignificant areas, you can do it in summer-autumn period as well. Thus, we obtain two main pruning periods: the main pruning period from February to the end of April and period from May to the end of October.
Due to the peculiarities of hormonal regulation (yes, yes, the plants also have their own hormones), the most powerful growth is given by the apical buds. The growth of shoots located in the lower parts of the tree crown is restrained. This has to be taken into account when trimming. Also, depending on the location, you not only regulate the intensity of growth, but also the direction of growth of the bud shoots, depending on its location in the height of the trunk. Higher buds produce long, fast-growing shoots. The buds directly above them also grow upwards. But the buds of the lower layers grow slowly and parallel to the ground, forming frequent branching zones.
We recommend that you either carefully read the specialized literature on tree pruning. It is even better to ask professionals for advice and assistance. Remember! Proper pruning can significantly improve the appearance, fertility and condition of your garden, while poor pruning or the lack thereof can cause premature tree loss.